What are infectious disease?

What are Infectious Disease?


Infectious illnesses are conditions caused by harmful microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. It can proliferate through environmental pollution, from one person to another, or from animals to humans. These illnesses can differ greatly in severity, modes of transmission, and effects on human health.

Infectious illnesses can spread through certain pathways:

  • Direct contact is when an infected person comes into contact with a vulnerable person. Examples are kissing, hugging, having sex, and sneezing and coughing that spread droplets.
  •  Indirect Contact: Contaminated food, water, surfaces, or items can all come into indirect contact with pathogens. For instance, using utensils tainted by an infected person or touching a doorknob could spread the disease.
  •  Airborne Spread: Some infectious agents can infect people who breathe them in for long periods while they are floating in the air. Airborne transmission is a way in which diseases, including COVID-19, influenza, and TB, spread.
  • Vector-borne Transmission: The bites of vectors, such as flies, fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes, spread several illnesses. Among the vector-borne illnesses are malaria, dengue fever, Lyme disease, and the Zika virus.
  •  Vertical Transmission: During pregnancy, delivery, or nursing, a mother may occasionally pass on uninfectious agents to her child. This form of transmission is capable of causing congenital infections.



Infection disease, illness, signs, and symptoms


The specific bacteria and the affected body part can significantly influence the signs and symptoms of an infectious disease. However, some typical indications and symptoms are as follows:

  •  Fever: In many infectious disorders, the body naturally responds to illness with fever. A fever frequently comes with perspiration or chills.
  • Fatigue: As the body’s immune system attempts to fend off an infection, feeling very exhausted or sluggish can be a sign of many infectious disorders.
  •  Coughing and Sneezing: Symptoms of respiratory infections like the flu, pneumonia, and common cold can include coughing, sneezing, a sore throat, and congestion.
     Vomiting and diarrhoea: Nausea, vomiting, stomach aches, and diarrhoea are all possible signs of gastrointestinal illnesses.
  •  Rash: Some viral disorders, such as measles, chickenpox, and several bacterial infections, may cause skin lesions or a rash.
  •  Mild to severe muscle and joint pain is a common symptom of many viral illnesses.
  •  Headache: Because headaches are frequent signs of many infectious disorders, they frequently coexist with other symptoms, including fever and exhaustion.
  •  Swollen lymph nodes: The lymph nodes, which are associated with the immune system, aid in the fight against infections and can enlarge as a result of illness.


 Causes of Infectious Infection

  • Bacteria: The invasion and proliferation of dangerous bacteria inside the body is the source of bacterial illnesses. Examples are infections of the urinary system, strep throat, and TB.
  •  Virus: When viruses infiltrate and proliferate within the body’s cells, illness results. Frequent virus infections include COVID-19, HIV/AIDS, the flu, and the common cold.
  •  Parasites: Ectoparasites (like ticks and lice) and helminths (worms) are the parasites that cause parasitic illnesses. Examples are infestations with lice, giardiasis, and malaria.
  • Fungi: Yeasts and moulds, among other fungi, can infect the skin, nails, respiratory system, and other areas of the body. Some are candidiasis, ringworm, and athlete’s foot.
  •  Prions: Aberrant proteins known as prions cause Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and other degenerative brain illnesses.


Prevention of infectious diseases

Preventing infectious illnesses frequently includes taking vaccinations, cleaning your hands, having safe sex, staying away from others who are ill, and not eating or drinking tainted food. As well as supportive care to alleviate symptoms and promote healing, treatment usually consists of antibiotics (for bacterial infections), antiviral medicines (for viral infections), antiparasitic drugs (for parasitic infections), and antifungal treatments (for fungal infections).


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